Potabilización de agua

Reverse Osmosis is to separate a component from another in a solution through the forces exerted on a semi-permeable membrane. Its name comes from "osmosis," the natural phenomenon by which cells provide water to sustain plant and animal life.
In the case of osmosis, the solvent (not the solute) happens spontaneously in a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated through a semipermeable membrane. Between these two solutions there is a difference of energy, caused the difference in concentrations. The solvent will pass in the direction indicated to reach equilibrium. Adding to the most concentrated energy in the form of pressure, the solvent flow will stop when the applied pressure equals the osmotic pressure between the 2 Apparent solutions. This osmotic pressure is apparently a measure of the potential energy difference between the two. If you apply more pressure to the concentrated solution, the solvent starts to flow in the opposite direction. This is the Reverse Osmosis. The solvent flow is a function of applied pressure, the apparent osmotic pressure and pressurized membrane area.
The basic components of a typical reverse osmosis plant consists of a pressure tube containing the membrane, but usually use several of these tubes, arranged in series or parallel. A continuously pump supplies fluid to treat the pressure tubes, and also is responsible in practice to provide the pressure needed to produce the process. A control valve in the concentrate stream is responsible for controlling it within the elements (called thus conveniently arranged membranes).